This work is
focused on reviewing the incentives allocated to deployment of BEVs, PHEVs, and
FCVs, and their charging/refueling infrastructure. Although many countries have
support and incentive programs for EVs, countries/jurisdictions that support BEVs
and FCVs at the same time. Japan, South Korea, and China from East Asia, Germany,
France, UK, Norway, Denmark, Sweden as representatives of Europe and the state
of California as a representative of North America were considered in this
work. From the review it was found out some of the investigated
countries/jurisdictions incentivize vehicles based on their emission which is
in favor BEVs. However, some countries/jurisdictions support the purchase of
FCVs with higher subsidies compared to BEVs, a partrt of that can be explained for
planning in the widespread use of hydrogen in the whole energy system and not
only the transportation sector. Regardless of the type and value of incentives,
the number of BEVs and PHEVs are considerably higher than FCVs. Based on the
analysis, it was suggested that countries should design incentives in a way to
achieve a logical mix of EVs= fleet. This is due to the reason that although
BEVs, PHEVs and FCVs are competitor technologies in replacing ICEVS, but they
are also complementary technologies for transition toward an emission-free
sector contributes to a considerable share of energy consumption and Greenhouse
Gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. In 2015, 50% of world oil consumption was consumed for road transportation 1.
In 2014, 35% of energy was used in the transportation
sector (21% of world energy consumption was used
in passenger cars) 1.
In 2010, about 14% of worldwide GHG emissions was
from the transportation sector 2.
share of the transportation sector in a
country’s GHG emissions varies among the countries all over the world. For instance, in the US, the transportation sector is a major contributor to GHG emissions and accounts
for 27% of GHG emission in 2015 3.
Out of that 27%, 60% of emission is from light-duty vehicles and 23% from
medium and heavy-duty vehicles 4.
In China, this share is smaller, and
transportation sector accounted for 6% of emissions in 2012 5.
issue regarding the emissions from transportation sector is that the GHG
emission emitted from combustion in Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs)
is emitted in urban areas where a
considerable population lives. It should be
noted that emission accompanied by
ICEVs is not just limited to CO2 emissions but these vehicles emit
particulates and also NOx, CO, and
hydrocarbons which are
considered as local pollutants 6.
These emissions affect the local air pollution and may cause health issues in
for the focus on reducing emissions in
the transportation sector is the potential
for GHG emission
reduction available in the transportation
sector for reducing emission compared to potential in industrial and
electricity sectors. The research and policies in support of renewable energy
development in the electricity sector and
energy conservation management in the industrial
sector have been in place for a long time. This
means that a considerable amount of potential in GHG emission reduction in
those sectors has been already captured.
However, fossil fuels (petroleum
and other liquid fuels such as natural gas plant liquids, biofuels,
gas-to-liquids, and coal-to-liquids) account for 96 % of energy consumption in
transportation sector 7.
This is a notable point especially for
countries that have a high percent of emission-free electricity generation capacity and can use that emission-free
electricity to provide the energy needed
in the transportation sector.
To cut CO2 emissions by 80% by 2050 (as decided by G8 leaders
and the European Union in 2009), a 95% carbon emission reduction should
happen in transport sector 6. However, based on the
expected number of passenger cars by 2050 and knowing the emissions and efficiency
of ICEVs, the reduction target for transportation sector cannot be achieved
through an increase in efficiency of ICEVs
this limit, different countries/jurisdictions all over the world have invested in alternative fuel vehicles. As defined by the US Department of Energy, an
alternative fuel vehicle is “a
dedicated, flexible fuel, or dual-fuel vehicle designed to operate on at least
one alternative fuel” 8. Biodiesel,
electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, natural gas, or propane are considered as alternative fuels 8.
In this work,
we are focusing on vehicles that operate on hydrogen and electricity as an
alternative fuel. We are not considering biodiesel and ethanol as there is
uncertainty about the capability of biofuels to fuel the transportation sector
at large scale 6.
We are not also considering natural gas and propane as they are considered as
fossil fuels like gasoline and diesel although they may have lower emissions.
The focus of
this work is then on incentives allocated to electric vehicles (EVs). By EVs in
this work, we mean the vehicles that fully or partly move by an electric motor 9.
EVs have different technologies. In this work we are considering three EV