Abstract unique Internet Protocol address in order to

Abstract

The number of internet users are rapidly increasing
enormously now a days. The user avails the services of the Internet through
different types of devices like computer, mobile etc. the internet protocol
provide the connectivity the connectivity and identification of these device of
the internet. In this paper we discuss the Internet Protocol Version 4, its
feature and shortcomings, Internet Protocol Version 6, its features, deployment
issues and the techniques to migrate from Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPV4) to
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPV6).

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Keyword- IPV4, IPV6, the Internet, Transition, Translation,
Tunnelling, Dual Stack,

 

Introduction 

The Internet Protocol Version
4 which is in use in the today’s Internet was lunched in 1980s but due to some
limitation the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) decided to launch a new
version in 1991 in order to overcome the shortcomings of IPV4. The use of
internet is increasing day by day. There are many daily activities that need
the users to be connected with The Internet and there are enormous services
like social networking and websites, video call and chatting .To avail these
service, it is necessary to be a part of The Internet. To be connected with The
Internet we use devices like computer, mobile phone, tablet, handheld devices and
personal digital assistant   (PDA). All
these devices can communicate with each other through the network using internet
protocol (IP).It is pertinent to mention that each and every device has a
unique Internet Protocol address in order to communicate with other devices in
The Internet. Due to large number of users the IPV4 addresses become exhausted.
Migration from Internet Protocol Version 4 to Internet Protocol Version 6 was
impossible instantly due to the huge number of IPv4 users.

 

 

 

Literature Review

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet
Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely
deployed. Together with IPv6, it is at the core of standards-based
internetworking methods of the Internet. IPv4 is still by far the most widely
deployed Internet Layer protocol. It uses a 32 bit addressing and allows for
4,294,967,296 unique addresses. Even though the name seems to imply that it’s
the fourth iteration of the key Internet Protocol, version 4 of IP was the
first that was widely used in modern TCP/IP 3. IPv4, as

It is sometimes called to differentiate it from the newer IPv6, is the
Internet Protocol version in use on the Internet today, and an implementation
of the protocol is running on hundreds of millions of computers. It provides
the basic datagram delivery capabilities upon which all of TCP/IP functions and
it has proven its quality in use over a period of more than two decades. 3

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a version of the

Internet Protocol (IP) intended to succeed IPv4, which is the protocol
currently used to direct almost all Internet traffic. IPv6 stands for Internet
Protocol version 6 also known as Ipng (IP next generation) is the second
version of the Internet Protocol to be used generally across the virtual world.
The first version was IPv4. 3 IPng was designed to take an evolutionary step
from IPv4. It was not a design goal to take a radical step away from IPv4.
Functions which work in IPv4 were kept in IPng. Functions which didn’t work
were removed. The Internet operates by transferring data between hosts in
packets that are routed across networks as specified by routing protocols.
These packets require an addressing 3

Scheme, such as IPv4 or IPv6, to specify their source and destination
addresses. Each host, computer or other device on the Internet requires an IP
address in order to communicate. The growth of the Internet has created a need
for more addresses than are possible with IPv4. Like IPv4, IPv6 is an
internet-layer protocol for packet switched internetworking and provides
end-to-end datagram transmission across multiple IP networks. While IPv4 allows
32 bits for an IP address, and therefore has 232 (4 294 967 296) possible
addresses, IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, for an address space of 2128
(approximately 3.4×1038) addresses. This expansion allows for many more

Devices and users on the internet as well as extra flexibility in
allocating addresses and efficiency for routing traffic. It also eliminates the
primary need for network address translation (NAT), which gained widespread
deployment as an effort to alleviate IPv4 address exhaustion.  3

Transition
to IPv6

The IPv6 and IPv4 are not
compatible protocols, thus, the resources available over IPv6 cannot be reached
by IPv4 node and vice versa. Fortunately, the network architecture allows the
usage of these two protocols in parallel which make the transition from IPv4 to
IPv6 done smoothly. 2

There are different strategies
for transition from IPv4 to IPv6 such as

• Upgrade the whole
network architecture along with the operating systems and applications to be
IPv6 compatible. This option will guarantee the maximum benefit from all IPv6
features but it is very expensive.

• Wait for the last minute
to deploy, which means nothing will be used from IPv6 features till IPv4
address exhaustion. This option is very risky and will lead to loss of market
share.

• As a middle strategy,
the deployment to IPv6 could be made at incremental levels, which guarantee the
benefit from IPv6 features and at the same time it will lower the cost of
deployment and allow the risk management.

From our research, we have
found that many countries prefer to follow the incremental transition of IPv6.
2

Although NAT in IPv4 helped reduce the number of public IP addresses
needed in an organization, NAT still has some security and performance issues.
NAT being good for client server communication such as email and web has issues
when it comes to peer-peer communication. IPv6 provides an end to end network
connection which is a peer-peer system used in applications like VOIP. It also
has an auto configuration system that allows clients to communicate
independently without any need for a manual setup and also makes use of IPSec
compulsorily in all its communication. This make IPv6 more secure than
IPv4.Also, because IPv4 has fewer addresses than IPv6, this will require the
use of proxies and other forms of network mapping, thereby increasing the risk
in packet sniffing through proxies but IPv6 contains more address space thereby
reducing the use of proxies and ultimately increasing the level of security on
the network. 4

Global Deployment
Initiatives and Policies

Since the deployment of IPv6 has not been done at
global scale in all countries, lot of deployment problems are still unknown. In
order to uncover any problem related to the movement towards IPv6; government
policies and global experiments and awareness campaigns have been set up such
as World IPv6 day and Test-Bed. 2

I. World IPv6 day: the idea was
started on the 6th of June 2012 when major Internet service providers (ISPs),
home networking manufacturers and web companies around the world united to
launch a new era for the Internet by collaborating in a 24-hour global
experiment – World IPv6 Day. The goal of this day is to discover the problems
and challenges regarding movement towards IPv6 and to find solutions for these
problems. More than 300 organizations participating in the Day have enabled
IPv6 for their products and services and advertised both IPv4 and IPv6
addresses in the DNS 2

II. Test-bed: Test bed allows the examination of the IPv6
environment (development, testing, and deployment) without breaking the
production network. There are various Test-bed experiments made around the world
we will discuss some of them below.

• Worldwide Test bed – The 6bone: since many people
and network manufactures and vendors started to implement and experiment the
IPv6; this test bed was established to give more support for the evolution and
development of IPv6. It was first started at 1996.

• Indonesia Test Bed: this started when the
“Institute Teknologi Bandung” (ITB) in Indonesia was connected to the
“Asian Internet Interconnection Initiatives” (AI3) in order to
support the academic research on this field. 2

 

III. International
Policies: a national IPv6 network was
established to support the practical testing and usage of IPv6 technology by
many developers, researchers and operators around the world. The network was
established by many countries such as India, Korea and Japan. 6. some of the
important examples are shown below:

• India: In 2004, the Minister of Communications
and Information Technology declared the Ten Point Agenda to boost IT and
communications, and includes the migration to IPv6. 6

• Japan: Japan believes that IPv6 is very helpful
in leveraging the Internet to rejuvenate Japanese economy. Because of that,
Japanese took a leadership to design a roadmap for IPv6 in 2000. Japanese
government forced the incorporation of IPV6 and decided a deadline for
upgrading all existing systems in both public and business sectors. On 2003,
the Japanese government announces a tax credit program that eliminates the
taxes from the purchase of any IPv6 routers.

• South Korea: In 2003, the South Korean Ministry
of Information and Communication announced its funding to the IPv6 products and
services as a promotion program.

• China: In 2003, the Chinese government started a
plan to make their network fully operated on IPv6 by the end of 2005. The
government issued licenses and assigned budget for the construction of the
“China Next Generation Internet” (CGNI).

 

Discussion

Internet Protocol Version
4(IPV4)

Internet protocol version 4(IPV4)
has been introduced in The Internet since the early 1980s .It is the fourth
version of Internet Protocol (IP). IP networks 
provides host to host connectivity and  addressing scheme used to identify each and
every device connected with the network and follow datagram (connectionless)model of data delivery. This service model is
sometimes called best effort 9

Because although IP makes every effort to deliver datagrams, it makes no
guarantees. Examples
of IPV4 addresses are:

192.168.0.0

123.120.4.5

 

The packet format is of
the Internet Protocol Version 4 is

 

Version

Hlen

TOS

Length

Iden

Flags

Offset

TTL

Protocol

Checksum

SourceAddr

DestinationAddr

Options

Padding

Data

 

 

The version filed
specifies the version of the IP

Hlen field specifies the
length of header

TOS field to allow packets
to be treated differently based on application needs

Length field describes the
length of the datagram

Iden, Flags and Offset
fields are used in fragmentation.

TTL field this field is
used to count the number of hopes the packet passes

Protocol Field: This field
is used to identify the upper layer protocol to which the packet should be
passed

Checksum field: This field
is used for error checking

SourceAddr field: It shows
the address of the source host

DestinationAddr field:
This shows the address of the destination host on the network

Option field: This field
gives to add different options in the IP header

Pad field: When the size
of the packet is lessen the 46 bytes then padding field is used for padding

 

In 1977 IP address should
be 32 bit, was decided after long discussion. It was invented by Robert Kahn
and Vint Carf. The total possible IP addresses are almost 4.3 billion. At the
beginning it was considered that these IP address are sufficient to uniquely
identify each and every device connected with The Internet. The Internet Protocol
address consists of five classes which are:

Class A

In Class A the maximum
number of network are 126 and number of hosts are 16 million. Large
organization having huge number of users acquire Class A address

Class B

The number of network and
hosts are 16 thousand and 64 thousands respectively. The organizations whose
users are in thousands prefer to use Class B address. Huge pressure on this
Class have been observed over the years

Class C

In Class C the number of
networks are 2 million and number of possible hosts are 256. The small
organization having hundreds of users obtain class C address.

Class D

Class D address have been
reserved for multi casting but the Internet router never allowed it except in
few cases.

Class E

Class E addresses have
been reserved for future use and experimental purpose.

 Each class allocated a certain number of bits
for the network portion of address and rest of the bits are for hosts. Class’s
D addresses are reserved for multicasting and routers on The Internet did not support
multicasting except few virtual private network.

 

To differentiate between a
network address and hosts, subnet masks are used in IP addressing scheme. For
example an IP address 192.168.0.1 with sub net masks 255.255.255.0. 192.168.0
identifies the network and 1 identifies a host.

On Feb 2011 the Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) released the last block of
IP address. It means new organization cannot obtain new IP address. The IPV4
addresses become short due to assigned of IP address inefficiently. If an
Organization has 10 nodes, then it can obtain class c address it means 256
addresses are assigned to that organization. 10 addresses can be used and remaining
addresses will be wasted. An organization having 260 nodes can obtain class B
address. It means we are using 260 IP addresses out of 65, 536 IP addresses In
this case  for example address assignment
efficiency in 256/65,536 … To overcome this inefficient assignment of IP
address following methods/ techniques have been introduced:

Network Address
Translation (NAT)

Classes Internet Domain Routing
(CIDR)

Dynamics Host
Configuration

 

Network Address Translation
(NAT)

It allows multiple devices
to use local private address within an enterprise with sharing one or more
global IPV4 address for external communication .NAT translates public IP
addresses into private IP network. By using NAT the Internet Service Providers
(ISPS) do not need to assign individual IP address to each and every customer’s
device. It assign a single IP address to a costumer and this address can be use
via NAT to provide more private IP address to other devices. The costumer may
have thus enabling more IP address to be available to more customers

 

Classes Internet Domain
Routing (CIDR)

Classless inter domain routing (CIDR, pronounced “cider”) is a technique
that addresses two scaling concerns in the Internet: the growth of backbone
routing tables as more and more network numbers need to be stored in them, and
the potential for the 32-bit IP address space to be exhausted well before the
four-billionth host is attached to the Internet.

Shortcomings of IPV4

1) IPV4 has the following
shortcomings /limitations

 Addressing space

Day by day the numbers of
users are increasing enormously. Of course these internet users are using
various kinds of devices like mobile, computer, tablets and PDA. The IPV4
addresses are limited 4.3 billion out of these 4.3 billion addresses a large
numbers of IP address wasted due to inefficient assignment. It was the core shortcoming
of IPV4 that it cannot accommodate more hosts. 5

2) Security

IPV4 does not provide any
security when packets are transmitted. Security like authenticating packets or encryption
so that to avoid unauthorized access to packets during transmission process .Security
feature was optional in IPV4

3) Network congestion

IPV4 has a broadcast
feature. Broadcast means packets are sent to all devices connected to the
Internet. This lead to the congestion on network and packets are dropped

4) Packet loss:

An IPV4 header contains a
field called time to live (TTL). By this field the time of expiry is set when
the packet / datagram does not reach the destination within that specific time
then the receiver has to request to the sender again to resend that datagram. 8
This multiple sending of same packets and delay may lead to the packet loss. In
particular application like real time it cannot be tolerated.

5) Data Priority

In IPV4 it is not possible
to recognize the data being transmitted so high priority data cannot be
transmitted on priority basis.

Internet Protocol Version 6(IPV6)

IPV6 is also known as next
generation of IP (IPng) which is the successor of IPV4 which is in use in today
the Internet. IPV4 address example is

47CD:1234:4422:ACO2:0022
🙁 234; A456:0124)

48CE:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:A456:1245

Address with a large
number of successive 0s can be written

 48CE:A456:1245

The IPV6 packet format is

Version

Traffic Class

Flow Label

Pay Load Length

Next Header

Hope Limit

Source Address

Destination address

 

Version field identifies
the version of the protocol

The Traffic Class and flow
label fields are used to ensure the quality of service.

Pay load length shows the
length of the packet excluding packet header

The next header has merged
the options and protocol field in IPV4

Hope limit counts the
number of hopes a packet passes

SourceAddress and
DestinationAddress fields identify the source and destination address of the
packet.

The concept of IPV6 was
put forwarded to overcome the limitation / shortcoming of IPV4 so the main
feature for IPV6 are dismissed below

1) Address Space

IPV6 uses 128 bit address
space therefore the possible number of IPV6 address are 3.4

1038.
Theses addresses are enough to accommodate each and every day on the
surface of the earth truly uniquely. This expansion of IPV6’s address space

To make NAT not necessary

To improve total
connectivity

To improve reliability

To improve flexibility

2) Security

In IPV6, Internet Protocol
security (IPsee) was integrated which was optional in IPV4

IPV6 offers three types of
Auto configuration

Stateless Auto
configuration

IPV6 includes a plug and
play mechanism that facilitates the connection of equipment to the network. This
is called stateless auto configuration. In stateless mechanism router will
provide the prefix from router advertisement

3) IPV6 provides the
facility to facilitate the large number of hosts.

4) Multicast facility

In IPV4 multicast
capabilities were present but never routers support it and was optional but in
IPv6, multicast is ………………..

5) IPV6 also defined
another service called any cost besides uncast and multi cast

6) Some optional field
were removed from IPV4 and a few more are added in IPV6

7) Mobility is another key
feature of IPV6 this feature enables hosts to ream around in different
geographical area and remain connected with same IP address.

8) The header format of
IPV6 is simple which make packet handling more efficient  

9) IPV6 allows fragmentation
at end host instead of router IPv6 hosts are required either perform path MTO
discovery and fragment packet before sending them out or only send packets
which are larger than minimum MTU. Due to this feature processing at router
become easier.

10) In IPV6 header, there
is a field called flow label which allow the Internet service providers to
perform traffic engraining and quality of service etc.

 

IPV6 Migration Issues and
technique

Migration or transition
from IPV4 to IPV6 is not possible at one day due the reason that the Internet
is too big and no centralized. Before discussing the technique for transition
from IPV4 to IPV6 let discuss the issues that need to cared

1) In order to support
IPV6 many protocols like DHC, OSPF, RIP, BGP and other protocols need to be
redesigned.

2) To migrate from IPV4 to
IPV6 the networks devices like switches, router and other device need to
replace by such device which can support IPV6 but which is costly or expensive  

3) IPV6 has been lunched
but till now it has not been tested properly so security may be a problem

 

The techniques that can be
used for transition from IPV4 to IPV6 are:

1) Dual Stack

In dual stack technique to
transition from IPV4 to IPV6 both IPV4 and IPV6 protocol runs simultaneously on
devices in the network. It means to implement dual stack technique we have to
create a stack that supports both protocols. Currently this technique is used as
a deployment stately for network but there are many issues to be solved like
all routers need to be upgraded to IPV6 and dual management of IPV4 and IPV6
routing tables

2. Tunnelling  

In this mechanism and
technique the existing IPV4 network can be used to carry IPV6 traffic and vice
versa. Tunnelling may be IPv6 over IPV4 or IPV4-over –IPV6 networks. Using this
technique an IPV4 network user can communicate to an IPV4 network .Tunnelling
may be manual, Automatic and semi-automatic .In manual tunnelling the end pint
of the tunnel must be configured manually. The end point may either a router or
host

In automatic tunnelling
the IPV4 address information is embedded in an IPV6 address.