Arjun that we fail to fully take notice

Arjun Appadurai «Mediascapes»

 

According
to Appadurai, there are five dimensions of global cultural flows: ethnoscapes;
mediascapes; technoscapes; financescapes and ideoscapes.

 

Mediascapes
refer to the rise and distribution

of
electronic processes and media

to
produce and break down information.

 

It
also considers the “images” of the world created by these media

and
the impact these images have on society.

 

The
content of these mediascapes provide a “narrative”

by
which society constructs their concepts of reality and fiction.

 

The
lines between these concepts get blurred over time, with individual’s creating
“imagined worlds” that are combined with metropolitan life and experiences.

 

Technoscapes
refer to the rise of technology across national boundaries while Financescapes
refer to the international capital exchanges.

 

Appadurai
emphasises the structural difference between the scapes and notes their
potential to destabilize each other through their interconnections.  

 

 

Nick Couldry, Andreas Hepp

 

In
a paper written together, Couldry and Hepp discuss the interplay between media,
culture and society.

 

They
look beyond the production-text-audience triangle

towards
the open-ended and non-linear consequences of media.

 

According
to them, the term mediatization and its variants is deeply related to social
and cultural research as a whole.

 

 It is designed to capture how the
communicative construction of reality is manifested within certain media
processes.

 

They
specifically distinguish the difference between ‘mediation’ and
‘mediatization’.

 

 While ‘mediation’ refers to the process of
communication in general,

‘mediatization’
is a category designed to describe change.

 

In
other words, ‘mediatization’ refers more specifically to the role of particular
media in emergent processes of socio-cultural change.

 

According
to Couldry and Hepp, our entire reality, socially and culturally is shaped by
the way we communicate and in turn, interpret what is communicated to us.

 

 

 

 

Marshall McLuhan

“Global Village and Understanding Media: The
Extensions of Man” (1964)

 

McLuhan
was a theorist that fundamentally changed perceptions of media, communications,
and technology. He predicted the internet 30 years before it was actually
introduced.

 

His
theories suggest that the media reshapes the ways in which individuals,
societies, and cultures perceive and understand their environments.

 

 The introduction of new technologies into a
society has a determining influence on how that society is organized, how its
members perceive the world around them and how knowledge is stored and shared.

 

He
introduces the concept  of a “Global Village” as an electronic nervous
system. The Media creates environments that influence our perceptions to such
an extent that we fail to fully take notice of their effects.

 

He
looked to the broader culture and society within which a medium operates in
order to pick out patterns of its effects. McLuhan treated all technologies as
extensions of our bodies………. a pencil is an extension of the hand, while the
wheel is an extension of the feet.

 

He
also notes the time and space bias that exists in the media and the extent to
which environments and technologies mediate our lives.

 

Lev Manovich

The language of new media (2001)

 

Manovich
conceptualized the first systematic and rigorous theory of new media.

 

He
places new media within the histories of visual and media cultures of the last
few centuries.

 

He
discusses its reliance on conventions of old media

and
explains how new media creates

the
illusion of reality, addresses the viewer, and represents space.

 

He
also analyzes categories and forms unique to new media, such as interface and
database.

 

Manovich
uses concepts from film theory, art history, literary theory, and computer
science and also develops new theoretical constructs,

 such as cultural interface and spatial
montage.

 

The
theory and history of cinema play a particularly important role in his work.

 

Friedrich Krotz

 

Krotz
explains Mediatization as a concept with which to grasp media and societal
change.

 

 He discusses the meta-process of
‘mediatization’ as a conceptual frame.

 According to him, Media develops in
non-substitutional way, New media doesn’t replace older media, they co-exist.

 

Unlike
theories from his peers such as Innis, McLuhan and Goody,

 Krotz views mediatization theory with a
historical and process based approach not centered around a medium or
technology.

 

Krotz
believes that Mediatization is ‘grounded in the modification

of
communication as the basic principle of how people construct the social and
cultural world’.