Arjun Appadurai «Mediascapes»
to Appadurai, there are five dimensions of global cultural flows: ethnoscapes;
mediascapes; technoscapes; financescapes and ideoscapes.
refer to the rise and distribution
electronic processes and media
produce and break down information.
also considers the “images” of the world created by these media
the impact these images have on society.
content of these mediascapes provide a “narrative”
which society constructs their concepts of reality and fiction.
lines between these concepts get blurred over time, with individual’s creating
“imagined worlds” that are combined with metropolitan life and experiences.
refer to the rise of technology across national boundaries while Financescapes
refer to the international capital exchanges.
emphasises the structural difference between the scapes and notes their
potential to destabilize each other through their interconnections.
Nick Couldry, Andreas Hepp
a paper written together, Couldry and Hepp discuss the interplay between media,
culture and society.
look beyond the production-text-audience triangle
the open-ended and non-linear consequences of media.
to them, the term mediatization and its variants is deeply related to social
and cultural research as a whole.
It is designed to capture how the
communicative construction of reality is manifested within certain media
specifically distinguish the difference between ‘mediation’ and
While ‘mediation’ refers to the process of
communication in general,
is a category designed to describe change.
other words, ‘mediatization’ refers more specifically to the role of particular
media in emergent processes of socio-cultural change.
to Couldry and Hepp, our entire reality, socially and culturally is shaped by
the way we communicate and in turn, interpret what is communicated to us.
“Global Village and Understanding Media: The
Extensions of Man” (1964)
was a theorist that fundamentally changed perceptions of media, communications,
and technology. He predicted the internet 30 years before it was actually
theories suggest that the media reshapes the ways in which individuals,
societies, and cultures perceive and understand their environments.
The introduction of new technologies into a
society has a determining influence on how that society is organized, how its
members perceive the world around them and how knowledge is stored and shared.
introduces the concept of a “Global Village” as an electronic nervous
system. The Media creates environments that influence our perceptions to such
an extent that we fail to fully take notice of their effects.
looked to the broader culture and society within which a medium operates in
order to pick out patterns of its effects. McLuhan treated all technologies as
extensions of our bodies………. a pencil is an extension of the hand, while the
wheel is an extension of the feet.
also notes the time and space bias that exists in the media and the extent to
which environments and technologies mediate our lives.
The language of new media (2001)
conceptualized the first systematic and rigorous theory of new media.
places new media within the histories of visual and media cultures of the last
discusses its reliance on conventions of old media
explains how new media creates
illusion of reality, addresses the viewer, and represents space.
also analyzes categories and forms unique to new media, such as interface and
uses concepts from film theory, art history, literary theory, and computer
science and also develops new theoretical constructs,
such as cultural interface and spatial
theory and history of cinema play a particularly important role in his work.
explains Mediatization as a concept with which to grasp media and societal
He discusses the meta-process of
‘mediatization’ as a conceptual frame.
According to him, Media develops in
non-substitutional way, New media doesn’t replace older media, they co-exist.
theories from his peers such as Innis, McLuhan and Goody,
Krotz views mediatization theory with a
historical and process based approach not centered around a medium or
believes that Mediatization is ‘grounded in the modification
communication as the basic principle of how people construct the social and