CHAPTER management practices employed in Turkey during the

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW
RELATED LITERATURE

 

Proven solid waste management
practices and its effect on human health and environment.

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The organization of solid waste undergoes to be themain challenge
particularly in the most healthcare amenities of the developing world. Poor
conduct and unfortunatedisposaltechniquesimplemented during supervision and
disposal of CSW is increasing important health hazards and environmental
pollution due to the contagious nature of the waste. This article summary a literature
review into remaining CSW administrationrehearses in the healthcare centers. Several
researches have been accompanied on the management of CSW (2016). Although, important
stages have been taken on substances related to safe control and disposal of
the waste, but inappropriate management practice is manifest from the point of
initial collection to the final disposal. In most cases, the main reasons of mismanagement
of CSW are the lack of legislation, lack of specialized clinical staffs, lack
of awareness and effective control. Furthermore, most of the healthcare centers
of the developing world have handled financial complications and therefore
looking for cost effective disposal ways and means of clinical waste. This
paper emphasizes to remain the recycle-reuse program of CSW materials after sterilization
by consuming supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) sterilization machinery
at the fact of initial gathering. Importance is on the significance to
inactivate thetransferrable micro-organisms in CSW. Therefore, waste would not stance
any danger to healthcare personnel. The recycling-reuse platform would be
carried out effectively with the non-specialized clinical staffs. Consequently,
the implementation of SF-CO2 sterilization technology in management of clinical
solid waste can easepublicity to contagious waste, decrease labor, lower costs,
and produce better agreement with supervisory.

 

 

Municipal solid waste management status,
problems and challenges.

This paper presents an examination of MSW generation and composition providing
an overview of the current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing
problems in MSW collection, separation, recycling and disposal, and some
suggestions for improving MSW systems in the future.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solid waste management
practices and analysis of reclamation and recycling actions 

            This paper offers a broad summary of solid waste data and management
practices employed in Turkey during the last decade. Municipal
solid waste statistics and management practices including waste recovery and
recycling initiatives have been evaluated. Detailed data on solid waste
management practices including collection, recovery and disposal, together with
the results of cost analyses, have been presented. Based on these evaluations
basic cost estimations on collection and sorting of recyclable solid waste in
Turkey have been provided. The results indicate that the household solid waste
generation in Turkey, per capita, is around 0.6 kg/year, whereas municipal
solid waste generation is close to 1 kg/year. The major constituents of
municipal solid waste are organic in nature and approximately 1/4 of municipal
solid waste is recyclable. Separate collection programs for recyclable
household waste by more than 60 municipalities, continuing in excess of 3
years, demonstrate solid evidence for public acceptance and continuing support
from the citizens. Opinion polls indicate that more than 80% of the population
in the project regions is ready and willing to participate in separate
collection programs. The analysis of output data of the Material Recovery
Facilities shows that, although paper, including cardboard, is the main
constituent, the composition of recyclable waste varies strongly by the source
or the type of collection point.

 

 

 

 

 

Modeling Animal Waste Management Practices: Impact on Bacterial Level in
Runoff of from Agricultural Lands

            Runoff from agricultural lands carrying microorganisms from
livestock manure can contaminate the food and water supplies of both animals
and humans. Planning and design of animal waste management practices, thus,
becomes more important as livestock populations become more concentrated. A
computer model is proposed to predict the effects of animal waste management
practices on the bacteria concentration of runoff from agricultural lands. The
model uses Monte Carlo simulation to combine the deterministic relationships
with statistical knowledge concerning rainfall and temperature variation. The
model outputs maximum and minimum bacteria concentrations in runoff resulting
from a storm assumed to occur immediately after manure is applied to the land.
The model can simulate the effects of waste storage, filter strips, and
incorporation of manure into the soil. Data and information collected from the
Owl Run watershed in Fauquier County, Virginia is used to demonstrate the
model’s applicability and potential. Long-term manure storage was found to be
the most appropriate practice for reducing bacteria concentrations for the
study site. Incorporation of manure was as effective as long-term storage, but
is costlier. Buffer strips alone were not sufficient for reducing bacteria
concentrations to meet the water quality goal. Since animal waste management
practices have only recently been implemented on the watershed, no field data
is yet available to validate the model’s predictions.

 

 

 

 

 

Effects of Environmental Management
System on Environmental Management Practices and Operations

            To date, it is unclear as to how Environmental
Management Systems (EMS) are implemented and what effects these systems have on
other environmental and operational practices. This study reports empirical
insights to EMS practices based on the largest EMS survey of manufacturing
firms in the United States. The objective of the study is to test for a
relationship between environmental management systems and perceived operations
performance while considering direct and indirect effects of various
environmental practices. The results of this study are supported by several
field studies and provide a new source of information regarding EMS theory
development. The results also indicate a positive relationship between an EMS,
the environmental practices a firm engages, and operations performance
measures.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Management practices for environmental innovation
and performance

            This paper explores whether there are
discernible differences in the environmental innovation and performance of US
chemical firms that can be explained by differences in the management practices
and characteristics of the firms. Using data from a national survey, firm
visits, and phone interviews, this research assesses the pervasiveness of the
adoption of environmental management practices. It also assesses whether the
adoption of these practices is related to leadership in environmental
innovation and performance. This paper shows high levels of adoption of several
practices for improving environmental innovation and performance. Firms are
using practices such as total quality management, certification of suppliers,
R&D, and the involvement of employees in innovation and training to
integrate environmental management with their production systems. In addition,
firms with the highest adoption levels of environmental practices have
substituted cleaner materials and changed their production processes for
cleaner production, and they are leaders in reducing their generation of
chemical waste.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Resource use and waste
management in Vietnam hotel industry

            The
hotel industry of Vietnam is expanding rapidly with increasing international
arrivals and domestic tourists. At the same time, mounting costs of resources
and impacts of waste could affect the income, environmental performance and
public image of the hotel sector. The hotel industry’s resource management
(energy and water) would contribute to the long-term sustainability of the
tourism sector. This paper reports the results of a study conducted to assess
the resource use and management in the hotel industry in Vietnam. This was
obtained by carrying out a survey in 50 hotels on energy and water consumption,
and waste generation. The energy and water use, as well as the waste generated
in the various hotel categories have been estimated and compared with those in
other countries. The current practices in the hotels to address these issues
are highlighted, and benchmarks for efficient use of resources in Vietnamese
hotels are presented.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Household recycling
knowledge, attitudes and practices towards solid waste management

            A
questionnaire survey consisting of 2400 householders was performed on Abadan
residents to evaluate their knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towards
solid waste (SW) reduction, source separation and recycling, collection and
willingness to pay (WTP) for SW services. The study has also covered the
relationship between demographic variables and KAP towards SW management. The
data analyzed suggests that the studied community had a very positive attitude
to take part in SW source separation and recycling plans. However, the
respondents not only showed low intimate knowledge of different steps of SW
management, but were also weak to take practices about these steps. The KAP of
SW source separation and recycling was influenced by demographic factors of
age, education level, gender and occupation. It was further found that
education level and occupation were two significant factors affecting residents’
WTP (?2 = 24.083, p-value