Cladosporium identification of yeasts. C. albicans is opportunistic

Cladosporium is a pigmented mold, found to be airborne or on rotten organic matter both indoors and outdoors. Colonies range from a dark green to black color. They are slow-growing. Some species may be resistant. Exposures to the spores cause respiratory allergies, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and allergic rhinitis. Other aligments include skin lesions sinusitis, keratitis and nail fungus (https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Cladosporium).                           

B

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A

 

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                                       Figure 1.2: Cladosporium sp. A-bottom view, B- top view

1.2.2 Collectrotricum musae

Colletotrichum musae is a plant pathogen primarily affecting the genus Musa (Musa is one of two or three genera in the family Musaceae, it includes bananas and plantains. Around 70 species of Musa are known, with a broad variety of uses), which includes bananas and plantains. It is best known as a cause of anthracnose (the black and brown spots) indicating ripeness on bananas (Zakaria L et al., 2009).

                                       

Figure 1.3: Colletotrichum musae, cultures on PDA, 10 d growth from single conidia (Adapted from B.S. Weir et al, 2012)

1.2.3 Candida albicans

The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. C. albicans is opportunistic pathogenic yeast. It is a common member of the human gut flora. It does not proliferate outside the human body. C. albicans is cause symptoms including joint pain, weight gain, fatigue, and gas. C. albicans are establishing fast growing colonies, biofilms and starting to dominate human gut. So, population can get out of control because they. Toxic byproducts they cause damage to body organs and tissues. They can cause unpleasant symptoms as headaches and nausea (Gow N.A.R., 2017)

                             

Figure 1.4: Candida albicans ATCC 90028*(Adapted from http://yeastinfectioncause.net/2013/10/10/candida-albicans-atcc-90028-4/)

1.3 Bacterial species

1.3.1 Staphylococcus aureus 

It is a gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic, it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine. Pathogenicity MRSA is an emerging cause of infections outside of health care settings. Skin infection and necrotizing pneumonia have been reported as the cases of infections caused by MRSA (http://textbookofbacteriology.net/staph.html).

Figure 1.8: Staphylococcus aureus(Adapted from https://www.trivedieffect.com/the-science/tag/staphylococcus-aureus/)

1.3.2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 

It is a Gram-negative bacterium. Cell structure is rod-shaped. P. aeruginosa can cause disease in plants and animals. It is a medically important species. P. aeruginosa is a multidrug resistant pathogen recognized, advanced antibiotic resistance mechanisms. P. aeruginosa associated with illnesses hospital acquired infections. Such as ventilator associated pneumonia and various sepsis syndromes. P. aeruginosa is cause cystic fibrosis and traumatic burns. Treatment of P. aeruginosa infections difficult because it has natural resistance to antibiotics (Smith R et al., 1994)

                                       

Figure 1.9: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, colonies on agar (Adapted from http://textbookofbacteriology.net/pseudomonas.html)

1.3.3 Escherichia coli 

E. coli  is a Gram-negative, facultative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia. That is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most strains are harmless. Some serotypes can cause food poisoning. Due to food contamination they are occasionally responsible for product recalls. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut. Also they can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2. E. coli are preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria. They have a symbiotic relationship. They expelled into the environment within fecal matter. E. coli grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions. Its numbers decline slowly afterwards (https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/index.html).

Figure 1.10:  E coli (Adapted from http://www.bbc.com/news/health-13639241)

1.4 Phytochemicals

Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals. They have protective or disease preventive properties. There are more than thousand known phytochemicals. They are non-essential nutrients, because that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life. It is well-known that plant produces these chemicals to protect them. But recent researches demonstrate that they can also protect humans against diseases. There are many phytochemicals and each works differently. Some possible actions are antioxidant, hormonal action, stimulation of enzymes, interference with DNA replication, anti-bacterial effect and physical action.