uses various tools and techniques like work breakdown structure risk
management, scenario planning, etc. These tools and techniques act like a
guideline for he manager which enables them to set and define goals and
objectives, select the best course of action, optimum utilization of resources
i.e. men, machine, money, material, method and time; check the progress of the
project and make changes in the plan or scope as and when required. Marriott
used these tools and techniques to make their bedding program a big success.
required for a successful project are communication, motivation, negotiation,
time management, risk management, etc. These skills help to bridge any gaps in
the project to complete the project on time. Marriott used communication to
overcome the challenges faced due to cultural and time differences. Its
employees were motivated to reduce employee turnover which added to their cost
as new employees needed training. These skills also helped the project manager
to plan the course of action and anticipate the possible risks. It helped the
manager to identify various challenges and plan how to overcomes these
project is a unique event which has a unique output, starting point and a
finishing point. Management functions are planning, organizing, leading and
controlling. Project management cycle starts with initiating, planning,
executing, monitoring and controlling and lastly completion of the project.
building – A team may be made up of people from various cultures, with
different needs and ambitions. The project manager must understand the needs of
each team member and direct all the employees to the achievement of
organizational goals. To work in a team, the team members must trust each other
and work together as a single unit (Management
Study Guide, n.d.).
and development – training and development is essential for the wellbeing of a
company. Effective training will increase employee productivity and it will in
turn generate more revenue for the company. It helps the employee to stay
up-to-date with the latest technology and systems (Management Study Guide, n.d.)
– Delegation plays an important role in people management. When work and
responsibilities are assigned to the employees, they get a clear vision of what
is to be done. Delegating authority will make the employees feel responsible
and will give a sense of trustworthiness. Employees are accountable for the
work and tasks assigned to them.
– Motivation is one of the important people management skills. Motivation gives
the employees a sense of appreciation and belongingness. When the employees are
motivated, their productivity increases which will benefit the company.
Motivation will also reduce or eliminate employee turnover.
– Project managers must communicate effectively with its employee.
Communication must be clear so that the employees understand what exactly is
expected from them. It will give a clear picture of the company’s vision and
mission. Clear communication will also help to avoid confusion and doubt.
c. People Management Skills
– The project manager should be flexible to make changes in the scope as and
when required. At Marriott’s, new requirements and changes were evaluated
during the implementation of the project.
– The project managers delegate some authority and responsibilities to its
subordinates in a downward direction. It will not only get the work done but it
will also develop a sense of belongingness. Marriott established two teams who
were responsible for full service and limited service brands.
– Communication is one of the important element in every business. Marriott was
a diverse company with people working across time zones, different cultures and
languages. The project teams made use of conferences, emails, videos, photos,
etc. to remove the barrier of communication so that the business runs smoothly
– To motivate and retain its employees, Marriott’s trained its employees using wordless
videos and photos on how the beds should be done. This helped the employees to
understand the work and the various processes and perform effectively and
efficiently without any confusion.
vision – When Marriott’s faced problems with their bedding program, it created
a lot of chaos not only within the company but also with other hotels. They had
to stay focused on their goals. They built their vision and identified the
various problems that had to be tackled if they wanted to achieve their goal.
They identified the most effective solution which would help them stay firm
towards its vision.
b. 5 Key Principles of Leadership
Breakdown Structure – Work breakdown structure helps in the planning process
where in main tasks are broken down into smaller unit tasks for effective
planning and implementation. Marriott established teams to carry out various
tasks. These teams were responsible for identifying concepts, conduct market
research, test products, etc. When all these tasks were combined, it resulted
in the success of the key task i.e. implementation of the bedding program.
– The budget helps to set a plan of action. It helps to measure the budgeted
results. The bedding program aimed to change the look and increase the comfort
of guests in hotels. But this brought about a lot of challenges. The budget
manual helps to give orders, delegate work and authority, etc. to meet the
budgeted results. It enhances planning, optimum utilization of resources,
motivation, coordination and estimation.
2. Scenario Planning – Marriott faced a lot of problems
with their bedding program. They identified the different problems and set precise
procedures to deal with the challenges. They implemented various techniques
which helped them to boost their communication, procurement and distribution,
Management – Properties received their orders piecemeal. These properties faced
a risk of storage difficulties. To manage this risk, Marriott contracted an
external distribution company to handle the procurement and distribution
process. There were various distribution teams which were responsible for
tracking shipments and estimating gaps weekly. These teams checked the
production schedules and made plans as to how to report the gaps.
a. Tool and Techniques