PROPOSED including often a huge amount of added

 

PROPOSED STUDY FIELD AND/OR PROPOSED TITLE

Effect of
Temperature and Storage on Vitamin C content in Fruits Juice

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AIM AND OBJECTIVES

Aim of research study
To
test the concentration of vitamin C in different types of juice and fresh
fruits.
Objectives of research study

to set out a hypothesis about the vitamin C
content of the juice you are testing
to measure the vitamin C content of different
juices;
to consider the reliability and validity of
the results;
to evaluate the original hypothesis in the
light of the result; and
to consider how to improve the
procedure.

 
PROBLEM STATEMENT OR HYPOTHESIS AND RESULTS EXPECTED

Fruit
juices are liquid naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissues. The
labels of fruit juice package may be misleading as companies may
underestimate or overestimate the actual content. Thus, the problem is that
consumers do not know the actual amount of vitamin C in the commercial fruit
juices, unless the amount of vitamin C is stated on the label of the package.
 Some people think they are receiving
same concentration of vitamin C in any type of fruits, even commercial fruit
juices, or fresh fruit juices.
 
However,
the commercial fruit juice is typically designed to appeal to the taste preferences
of the market, and will therefore contain different flavor packs or chemicals
depending on where it will eventually end up. Commercial fruit juice has
already combined with oxygen, undergoes oxidation and all the nutrients have
been destroyed. It also has artificial, including often a huge amount of added
sugar. However, fresh fruit juice has a shelf life of sometimes more than a
day, and has hundreds of times of nutrients, enzymes, and phytochemicals. As
such I hypothesize that all the fresh fruits and fresh juices will have
vitamin C than the processed juices or concentrates.
 
Thus,
this study is carried out to determine concentration of vitamin C content in
three commercial fruit juices chosen, that are apple, orange and mango by
using titration and DSPIC methods. At the same time, identifying the highest
and the lowest vitamin C concentration in commercial fruits juices as well as
differentiate the concentration of vitamin C concentration between commercial
fruit juices and fresh fruit juices. Furthermore, comparing the state of the
vitamin C stored both at room temperature and the refrigerator.

 
JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO RELEVANT AND RECENT
LITERATURE (Contextualise
the study in terms of the broader field and literature, including preliminary
research conducted), ending with the anticipated contribution of the proposed
study)

Since
humans cannot synthesis ascorbate, their main source of the vitamin is dietary
fruit and vegetables. Fruits (especially citrus and some tropical) are the
best sources of this vitamin. An accurate and specific determination of the
nutrients content of fruits is extremely important to understand the
relationship of dietary intake and human health.
 
Unfortunately,
vitamin C cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be consumed
regularly. Moreover, fruits contain large amount of potentially interfering
compounds. For these reasons great caution should be exercised in the employment
of methods that have been developed for the analysis of specific plant tissue
types (Davey et al, 2000).
 
The
purpose of the experiment is to compare the vitamin C concentrations of
carton, plastic, frozen and freshly squeezed natural and commercially
available juice. There has been a great amount of studies on vitamin C
because it is considered to play crucial roles in human health. Certain
quantities of ascorbic acid are required by the immune system for healing the
body, metabolizing carbohydrates, and resisting infections (Gritsanapun et al
2002).
 
Vitamins
are complex organic molecules required in small amount by the body in order
to maintain health and well- being. Generally, the daily requirements of the
various vitamins are very small quantities, but whenever these small
quantities are not available, the body cannot function properly. Vitamin C is
important for the human body because it helps the body to absorb iron, helps
wounds to heal, helps red blood cell formation and helps to fight infections.
For example. A lack of vitamin C can cause a disease called scurvy, iron
deficiency and poor wound healing (Levine 1986).

 
STUDY METHODOLOGY: (TECHNIQUES TO BE USED,
ASPECTS TO BE INVESTIGATED, ETC.)

 
A
laboratory test will be undertaken to examine the amount of Vitamin C content
in different kinds of fruits, both packed and fresh juices. Different
temperature settings will also be considered as part of the experiment to
understand the effect.
 
The
laboratory research will use a natural and packed fruit juices, ascorbic
acid, distilled water, and 2, 6-dichloropheolindophenol (DCPIP) solution. The
apparatus in the research will include a titration set (such as Burette,
stand, clamp, tile and funnel), 250 ml Conical Flask, Buchner Funnel and
Filter paper, Measuring cylinder, beaker, and a knife.
 
A
titration method will be used to determine the concentration of vitamin C in
freshly prepared and commercial fruit juice samples. Titration or called as
volumetric analysis is a common laboratory method of quantitative analysis
that can be used to determine the concentration of a known analyte. A titrant
of known concentration is used to react with a solution of the analyte of
unknown concentration. Using a calibrated burette, it is possible to
determine the exact amount of titrant that has been consumed when the
endpoint is reached. The endpoint is the point at which the titration is
complete, as determined by the colour change of an indicator.

REFERENCES:
(Refer
only to cited literature used in this proposal and provide at least three
appropriate references to be referenced in full)

El-Ishaq,
Abubakar (2015). The Effect of Temperature and Storage on Vitamin C content
in Fruits Juice.  file:///C:/Users/asmetesfay32/Downloads/70420002.pdf
 
Hernandez.
Y, Lobo. M, Gonzalez. M, (2015). Determination of vitamin C in tropical
fruits: a comparative evaluation of methods. http://www.icia.es/icia/download/postcosecha/vitamina%20c.pdf

 
Wonsawat.
W, (2014). Determination of vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in Orange Juices
Product. https://www.waset.org/publications/9998778/determination-of-vitamin-c-ascorbic-acid-in-orange-juices-product

 
Ullah.
Shafqat, Hussain. Arshad, Ali. Javid, Ullah. Khaliqurrehman and Asad. (2012).
https://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr12(8)12/8.pdf

 
Vasanth
Kumar. G, Ajay Kumar K., Raghu Patel G.R., Manjappa S., ( 2013).
Determination of Vitamin C in some fruits and vegetables in Davanagere city,
(Karanataka)- India. http://www.ijplsjournal.com/issues%20PDF%20files/march-2013/12.pdf

 
Gummersheimer
L., (2016). The comparison of vitamin C content in commercially available
sources of orange juice using HPLC. https://www.mckendree.edu/academics/scholars/issue8/gummersheimer.htm
 
Pisoschi
A.M., Danet A.F., Kalinowski S., (2008). Ascorbic Acid Determination in
Commercial Fruit Juice Samples by Cyclic Voltammetry. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2008/937651/
 
Ivy
Iris (2018). Anaisis of Concentration of Vitamin C in commercial and Fresh
Fruit Juices by Titration method (DCPIP Titration). http://ipip.academia.edu/IvyIris
 
Mussa
S.B., Sharaa I., (2014). Analysis of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Contents
packed fruit juice by UV- spectrophotometry and Redox Titration Methods. http://uob.edu.ly/assets/uploads/pagedownloads/d66b3-analysis-of-vitamin-c-ascorbic-acid-contents-packed-fruit-juice-by-uv-spectrophotometry-and-redox-titration-methods.pdf
 
Kouhanestani
M.B., Salehi M., Mazloomi A.M., Hashyani A.A., (2014). Quantitative
evaluation of vitamin C in industrial lemon juice by titration method. https://journals.lexispublisher.com/jbtw/download/Get/Pdf/MTAwNDM7
 
Helmenstine
A.M., (2017). Vitamin C Determination by Iodine. https://www.thoughtco.com/vitamin-c-determination-by-iodine-titration-606322