### RESULTS = 94.92?? for root portion, a =

RESULTS
AND DISCUSSION

3.1
Xrd Analysis :

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only \$13.90/page!

order now

An X-ray
diffractogram of three portions of jute is shown in Fig.2. and Table 1.  The diffraction patterns of the root portion jute
displayed three main
peaks at 16.30?, 22.24?, and 34.59? of the
cellulose-I, which are due to the

, 0 0 2, and 0 4 0 respectively. The
middle portion jute had three main peaks at 16.39?, 22.33?, and 34.59?
of the cellulose-I which were assigned to

, 0 0 2, and 0 4 0 respectively. Similarly the diffraction pattern of tip portion
jute shows the crystalline structure of cellulose I peaks at 16.57?,
22.15? and 34.68? and are assigned to

, 0 0 2, and 0 4 0 respectively. Cellulose I is thermodynamically metastable and can
be changed to either cellulose II or III. Crystalline Cellulose I exist in two
polymorphs state, a monoclinic structure I? and a triclinic structure I?, which
coexist in various extent depending on the cellulose structure. The triclinic
I? component is a rare component, whereas I? is the principal portion. The
metastable I? polymorph can be transformed into I? by hydrothermal treatments
in alkaline solution (Poletto et al., 2013).
The unit cell dimensions are observed from table that the I? unit cell the cell
parameters are a = 8.05 Å, b = 10.36 Å, c = 8.01 Å and ?
= 94.92?? for root portion, a = 7.81 Å, b = 10.36
Å, c = 7.96 Å and ? = 93.57? for middle portion and a
= 7.80 Å, b = 10.33 Å, c = 8.04 Å and ? = 95.20?
for tip portion jute. It is reported in the literature that for I? cellulose
samples have unit cell dimensions are a = 7.784 Å , b = 8.201 Å , c = 10.380 Å
, and ? = 96.55?, the diffraction patterns patterns for Ib samples with preferred orientation along the c-axis (French 2014).  The crystal
size of three portions of jute is calculated by using Scherrer
equation, the crystal size of root, middle and tip portion jute samples are 3.35 nm, 3.26 nm and 3.18 nm and 4.93 nm respectively. The crystallite size of the jute fibers; the values
are in the order: root > middle > tip indicating higher rigidity of
cellulose fibers and decreasing crystallite surface corresponding to the
amorphous phase.  However, it is
important to mention that the crystallite size as calculated in most
literatures cannot provide much information regarding mechanical properties of
cellulosic fibres (Júnior 2014; Keten
2010).

Further,
the crystallinity index of root, middle and tip portion jute are found to be 62.4,
64.6 and 65.1 respectively. The microfibriller
angle of root, middle
and tip portion jute are observed to be 10.8?, 8.0? and 7.2?
respectively. The
microfibriller angle is found to be decreased and crystalline index is increased from root to tip portion of jute
fibre.  Crystalinity index and
microfibriller angle play considerable role on mechanical properties of
cellulosic fibre. The tensile strength and modulus of jute fibres have been
proved to be dependent on crystalinity index and microfibriller angle i.e the orientation of the crystalline cellulose. Tensile
strength and modulus of jute fibre are inversely related to microfibriller
angle and increases with increase in crystallinity index. Cellulosic fibre selection for reinforcement purpose
the crystalinity index and microfibriller angle of fibre plays important
function on mechanical properties of composite (Mwaikambo, 2009; Leonard,
2009).

3.2
FTIR Analysis of Three Portion of Jute:

The chemical nature of the jute
fibres was analyzed using FTIR and depicted in Fig.3. FTIR spectrum of the jute
shows chemical groups presence in the three basic constituent component
cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin (Fan et al.
2012). A broad absorption band in the region 3600–3200 cm-1
for three portions of jute is observed associated with the –OH stretching of
the hydroxyl group of cellulose and intra-hydrogen bond stretching of the
absorbed water. The peaks at 2915, 2916 and 2918 cm-1 are
responsible for the -CH stretching vibration from CH and CH2 in
cellulose and hemicellulose components and the peaks at 1735, 1733 and 1732 cm-1  assigned to the carbonyl C=O stretching of
carboxylic acid in lignin or ester group in hemicelluloses. A little peak at
1507 and 1510 cm-1 are associated with the C=C stretching of
aromatic ring of the lignin. The absorbance at 1424, 1421 and 1422 cm-1
is due to the presence of CH2 symmetric bending present in cellulose
and lignin. The absorbance peaks at 1368, 1367 and 1366 cm-1
correspond to the C–H stretching vibration presence in cellulose and
hemicellulose component, respectively (Bodirlau
& Teaca 2009). The peak at 1157, 1156 and 1155 cm-1 is
due to the anti-symmetrical deformation of the C-O-C band. The strong peak at
1030, 1021 and 1020  cm-1 is attributed
to the CO and O-H stretching vibration which associated to polysaccharide in
cellulose (De Rosa et al. 2010 ).

3.3
Fibre fineness and diameter:

It
was found that the fibre fineness of root, middle and tip portion were 2.74 tex
, 2.00 tex and 2.00 tex respectively. The root portion fibres are coarser than
middle and tip portion fibres of jute reed. It was observed that the average
value of fibre diameter of root, middle and tip portion were 61 µm , 59.7 µm
and 52.6  µm respectively.  The fibre diameter follows the same trend
like fibre fineness. The frequency distributions of fibre diameters are shown
in Fig.4. The fibre diameter is an important parameter relates to mechanical
properties of composite. Fibre surface area related with interlaminar shear
strength of composite and the wetting behaviour with matrix material (Steinmann & Saelhoff 2016). The high
surface area of fibers is desirable property to get good physical adhesion with
matrix material which can be achieved by their small diameter compared to their
length.

3.4
Jute Fibre Strength Test:

Fibre
bundle test results show that bundle strength of root, middle and tip portion
were 21 g/tex, 18.8 g/tex  and 16 g/tex
respectively. It was found that bundle strength of jute fibre decreases along
the lengthwise from root to tip portion. The single fibre tensile strength
properties of three portions of jute reed are shown in Fig.5. The single fibre
tensile strength of root, middle and tip portions is 534 MPa, 406 MPa and 357
MP respectively. The elongation at break of root, middle and tip portions are 2.43%,
1.98% and 1.63% respectively. The tensile modulus of root, middle and tip
portions are shown to be 29.5GPa, 30.2GPa and 40.5GPa respectively. It is
observed that the tensile strength is gradually decreased from root to tip
portions, but tensile modulus is increased from root to tip portion. Fibers are
the main load bearing component of a fibre based composite material. According
to rule of mixture for perfectly bonded composite the tensile strength and
modulus of fibre is directly proportional to tensile strength and modulus of
composite.

Fig.5. Tensile
properties of three portion jute

3.5 Tensile Properties of Jute
Composites:

The
tensile properties of a fibre reinforced composite are mainly influenced by
tensile properties of fibre, fibre/matrix interfacial bonding, fibre content,
aspect ratio of the fibre, orientation of the fibres and the dispersion grade
of the fibre into the matrix (Thakur, 2014; Serrano et al., 2014). Tensile and
flexural properties of the resin and composite samples are shown in the Fig.6.
It is observed that the matrix material polyester resin had a tensile strength
of 26.8 MPa and modulus of 0.96 GPa. It
was observed that the composites made from root portion, middle portion and tip
portion had tensile strength of 135.6 MPa,
107.8 MPa and 94.2 MPa respectively. The tensile modulus of composites made from root
portion, middle portion and tip portion had
7.42 GPa, 7.68 GPa and 8.74 GPa respectively. The tensile strength and modulus
of a composite is mainly dependent on the strength and modulus of reinforcing
materials and the bonding strength between fibre and matrix.  The fibre is the main load bearing component
for perfectly bonded composite so effects of fibre tensile properties
variations are directly affect the tensile properties of composite.

3.6 Flexural Properties of Jute
Composites:

Fig.6 shows the flexural properties
of three types of jute composites and polyester resin, subjected to flexural
load. Flexural strength and modulus of a composite is dependent on the fibre
strength and extreme layer of reinforcement plays a vital role. The crack
always starts on the tension side of the composite sample and slowly propagates
in an upward direction. In general, the flexural modulus is very sensitive to
the matrix properties and fibre-matrix interfacial bonding. It has been
observed that, the polyester resin had flexural strength and modulus of 32.7 MPa
and 3.74 GPa.
It was observed that the composites made from root portion, middle
portion and tip portion had flexural strength of 151.3 MPa, 142 MPa and 112
MPa
respectively. The flexural modulus of composites made
from root portion, middle portion and tip portion had 10.13 GPa, 11.21 GPa and 11.88
GPa
higher flexural strength and lower flexural modulus than middle and tip portion
based composites due to higher tensile strength and lower tensile modulus of
root portion jute fibre. Middle portion based composite had higher flexural
strength and lower modulus than tip portion based composite.

4. Conclusion:

It can be concluded
that

Jute fibre diameter, fineness,
tensile strength and bundle
strength is decreased along the length from root to tip portion of jute reed
but the tensile modulus is increased from root to tip. Jute fibre strength variation has a great
effect on mechanical properties of jute composites. The composite
prepared from root portion jute had higher tensile and flexural strength than
middle and tip portion based composites. The middle portion based composite had
higher tensile and flexural strength than tip portion based composites. The
tensile and flexural modulus is observed to be increased from root to tip
portions based composite.

It
can be recommended that root portion jute is the best reinforcing material considering tensile and flexural
properties compare to the middle and tip portion of raw jute reed.