Russia organized crime began when the program of economic and political reform in the Soviet
Union initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1986 which is called
perestroika. Many of the organized crime in Russia came about in 1991 when the
government transition to a market economy. During this time and his term,
the government unsuccessfully made any hierarchy changes concerning transparency,
accountability, and shareholders rights, which all left a vague line between what
is legal and illegal (Webster, 2000, 32).
Which this vagueness led to business operations to do illegal things without
holding the responsibility of illegal prosecutions. Moreover, the nonexistence
of a stabile structure of markets – shareholders were denied ownership by
violence which led the Russia Mafia to infiltrate new financial opportunities
by private markets (Finckenauer, 2007) that were unclear in taxation practices.
Many of the issues of the of the Russian government relies
on itself in averting and punishing the crimes committed by the Mafia. The
Russian law lacked many basic things to control its land and that was the
equipment of cars, communication, computers, and a lack of experience with
crimes in the market economy (Finckenauer, 2007). These deficiencies made not
only the government as a hold to not have control of organized crime but as
well as the law enforcement agencies. When law enforcement is not getting the
equip training or even pay it causes many issues of organization – meaning bribes
are accepted, heads are turned when crime is being committed, etc.… (Grib,
2001, 150). In the 20th century there were 1.7 million offenders charged
with crimes ranging from theft, fraud, human trafficking, and drug trafficking –
approximately 50% were persons with no steady income (Shelley, 2003, 106). On
the other hand another example of court decisions in property taxation and
ownership were enforced only by 50% – claim the minister of justice (Volkov,
2002, 47). These few court examples showed the criminals within the country
that there is no reprimand of the crime they commit.
Furthermore, there was not a policy that advised that
law agencies: police officers or lawyers should get trained yearly. If lawyers
were practicing law and not using out of date practices so many groups would
have not been released from prison to continue to commit the crimes and/or many
group members would have got locked up for the crimes the committed.
All in all, I think the Russian government could have
prevented the growth of organized crime by not only setting policies for
educating their law officials how to deal with a market economy, but outreached
to the States to utilize the law schools that we offer. On top of that, business
should have been required to have business licenses and required to pay taxes
which would have prevented the government officials to work with organized
crime business owners.