Sanjib Significant associations were noted between the rate

Sanjib
Adhikari1, Sujan Khadka1,2, Pabitra Shrestha1,
and Sanjeep Sapkota1

1Department of
Microbiology, Birendra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Chitwan,

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Nepal

2Department of
Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Central China Normal
University, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. China

*Corresponding Author: Sujan Khadka,
E-mail: [email protected]

 

Abstract

Mobile phones widely used in our
day-to-day lives are potential reservoir for a number of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. The
study was carried out from February to May 2017 with a major objective to
isolate methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from mobile phones used by the staffs and
students of Birendra Multiple Campus. Two hundred swabbed samples of mobile
phones were collected from which 112 (56%) S.
aureus were isolated by standard microbiological technique. Gentamicin 101(90.2%)
was the most effective antibiotics whereas cefoxitin 42(37.5%) was the least
effective antibiotics. MRSA
30(26.8%), VISA 58(51.8%) and MDR- S.aureus 24(21.4%)
were detected. Significant
associations were noted between the rate of occurrence of MRSA and MDR
S. aureus with various attributes
such as the gender of the user, the way of handling the mobile phones and also
with the length of use of mobile phones (P-value 0.01) in our study. Similarly, no significant association
was noted in the study conducted by Kuhu Pal regarding the rate of isolation S. aureus and storage of mobile phones (P-value>0.1) 19.

A study conducted by Zakai
et al revealed that 59.0% medical students used their mobile phones in the
toilets 25.This finding is comparatively higher than our study in
which 40.2% of the respondents used their mobile phones in toilets.. Mobile
phones can act as fomites as they are contaminated by users from areas such as
toilets, hospitals and kitchens, which are burdened with microorganisms 26. Further, Giannini et al reported that
hospitals toilets are the source for MRSA 27.
The MRSA are very difficult to kill and
are significantly dangerous as stated by San Diego County Health and Human
Services Agency which also reported that MRSA is spread by person-to-person
contact and is frequently harbored in toilet bowls and dirty environment (https://healthyliving.azcentral.com/bacteria-found-in-toilet-bowls12320100.html). Using mobile phones in such environments can be one of the
reasons for presence of MRSA on the mobile phone surface. It is also revealed in our study that the mobile
phones used in the toilets were tremendously contaminated with S aureus (P-value