The force, as well as for the employment

The joint international labor organization committee on Occupational health, 1950 defined occupational health as “The highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations.”Occupational health was recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Office (ILO) in 1950 as the achievement of the highest physical, psychological and social standards for workers in all sectors of the labor force, as well as for the employment of the worker in accordance with his physical and psychological readiness to achieve harmony between the worker and his work. In May 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a resolution urging member states to formulate their strategy and devise national programs in occupational health to achieve the global strategy “Health for All by the Year 2000” (Document No. 49.12 WHO). In May 1997, Global Health A national occupational health strategy has been developedSafety and health at work place in Sudan.Occupational health services in Sudan were administered centrally from Khartoum in addition to the three regional sections in Atbara, Port Sudan and Madani until 1993, where the federal government was declared as a formula for the government system in Sudan and the issuance of the twelfth which transferred the executive work of the occupational health to the states.The aim of these policies is to define the regulatory procedures in the workplace to protect the health and safety of workers and to cope with the risks resulting from working environment conditions. They are consistent and effective aimed to improving working conditions, raising the level of protection and preventing injuries. Occupational diseases and accidents. These policies are also providing guidance and motivation for the application of sound principles and methods of occupational health management in enterprises.Hider Abdelnabbi Page 3Legislation of occupational health and safety in Sudan to protect the worker, care and promote health.Date of Date of Date of Modification Modification ModificationModification Modification Date of Release Date of Release Date of Release Date of ReleaseDate of Release Date of ReleaseDate of Release Name of law or regulation Name of law or regulation Name of law or regulation Name of law or regulationName of law or regulation Name of law or regulationName of law or regulation No20081975Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health120091975Environmental Health Environmental Health Environmental Health Environmental Health Environmental Health21990,1998,200 41974Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law Social Insurance Law31997Labor law Labor law Labor law Labor law Labor law41981Compensation for work injuriesCompensation for work injuries Compensation for work injuries Compensation for work injuries Compensation for work injuries Compensation for work injuries Compensation for work injuries Compensation for work injuries51974Law of pesticides Law of pesticides Law of pesticides Law of pesticides Law of pesticides Law of pesticides Law of pesticides619961971radiation law radiation law radiation lawradiation law72001Environmental Protection Environmental Protection Environmental Protection Environmental Protection Environmental Protection Environmental Protection819801978Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health Regulation of occupational health91983Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination Regulation periodic medical examination101977The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on The Higher Technical Committee on Occupational Health Occupational Health Occupational Health Occupational Health Occupational Health Occupational Health Occupational Health Occupational Health Occupational Health Occupational Health111977Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises Regulation on the establishment premises121973Law of the medical board Law of the medical board Law of the medical board Law of the medical board Law of the medical board Law of the medical board Law of the medical board Law of the medical board Law of the medical board13Hider Abdelnabbi Page 4Coverage of the regulations:Any one over the age of sixteen working in for any type of payment, for an employer and under his supervision and management, whether under a written or unwritten contract, or under training. Excluded: – domestic servants, family members of the employer who live with him and who are defendant on him for living. General Principles of Occupational Health Policy in Sudan: – Protecting the health and safety of all workers by preventing work-related injuries, diseases and accidents – The policy should be specific to the region and suitable for it in line with the size and nature of its activity. – Compliance with national laws and legislation and guidelines for occupational health. – Ensure that staff are consulted and encouraged to participate effectively in all occupational health management and management arrangements at their facilities. – Continue to apply and develop occupational health management. – Focusing on the continuous improvement of the protection and health of workers and to achieve the best performance of occupational health. The policy is practical and can be applied.Occupational health services in the Sudan at the federal level:The Occupational Health Department is under the supervision of the Environmental Health and Food Control Department which is under General Directorate of primary Health Care and consists of several specialized departments as follows: – Medical Section – Department of Environment and Environmental Pollution – Inspection and orientation Section – Department of Human Engineering and Work Physiology – Professional Sociology Department Functions of the departments: All occupational health departments work in an integrated manner and in the form of an integrated team aimed at accomplishing the tasks, competencies and objectives of the Occupational Health Administration. This is accomplished by implementing the specific tasks and competencies of each department.Hider Abdelnabbi Page 5• Medical treatment, First aid treatment in emergency.• Health education, First aid education.• Medical examination• Pre employment examination• Medical treatment, First aid treatment in emergency.• Health education, First aid education.• Medical examinationPre employment examinationPeriodic medical examinationSpecial medical examination• Health counseling• Stress management• Mental health• And Physical health• Rehabilitation programmer• Medical rehabilitation• Social rehabilitation• Educational rehabilitation• Vocational rehabilitationGeneral function1. Drawing up general policies and strategies for occupational health and safety services.2. Planning and ensuring that the department implements its objectives.3. Participate in the development of guidelines and guidelines that identify risks and occupational diseases in different work environments.4. Participate in the preparation of laws, regulations and special legislations and update them in coordination with the relevant bodies concerned with safety and occupational health.5. Participate in the preparation of curricula for training workers in different working environmentsHider Abdelnabbi Page 66. Training of workers in various occupational health and safety.7. Continuing supervision of the work of the states with regard to occupational health and safety8. Conducting surveys, research and studies on occupational health and safety9. Continuous communication, cooperation and coordination with relevant bodies concerned with occupational health and safety.10. Participation in conferences and workshops inside and outside the Sudan.Occupational Health on the State levelThe work of occupational health in the state of Khartoum began in implementation of the thirteenth constitutional decree which allowed the state authorities to exercise their executive functions for health activities including occupational health after it was implemented at the federal level. The work of occupational health in the state of Khartoum its was centrally in the presidency of the Ministry of Health, State of Khartoum until 1997, where the work moved to the localitiesHierarchy of state Occupational HealthThe Department of Occupational HealthKhartoum State follows the General Directorate for Health Promotion which is under General Directorate of primary health care and is divided into the Central Administration and the local occupational health teamsduties A / Training B / Setting plans and programs c / Technical supervision d / Providing work aids E / Consideration of complaints and consultations and / setting guidelines for action / coordination with relevant bodies Chair structure Occupational health teams in the localities: The of Khartoum state is divided into seven localities (Khartoum, JabalOliya, Bahri, East Nile, Omdurman, Karri and Ombda). – Its has been redistributed to three major localities: Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman on the basis of the distribution of the density of industrial establishments and the number ofHider Abdelnabbi Page 7workers. In each of the three localities there is a professional health team, administratively and locally, and technically to the Occupational Health Department. The team consists of the following:- 1- Occupational Health Coordinator (Health Officer):-• Represents the Director of the Department of Occupational Health in all matters related to the local occupational health.• Leading, supervising the occupational health team.• Environmental Coordination with the establishments and the labor office.• Survey and inspection according to the target.• Revenue and its follow-up.2- Environment worker and Professional health Guidance Officer (Health Officer):• Vocational guidance as per target.• Various environmental measurements.• Any other tasks entrusted to him by the coordinator or administration.3. Occupational health doctor:• Conducts general medical examination• Transferring cases as occupational diseases or injuries to occupational health professionals.4. Occupational health Nurse:• Performs physiological measurements (hearing and inhalational energy).• Measures weight and height.5. Assistant Medical Eye:• Eye Medical check.6. Statistician:• Record preliminary data for beneficiaries.Hider Abdelnabbi Page 8• Assist in the preparation of monthly and statistical reports.Occupational Health Targets:An inventory of the factories and the number of employees was carried out in Khartoum state in 1998. On the basis of this inventory, the industries were divided into the following sectors:An inventory of the factories and the number of employees was carried out in Khartoum state in 1998. On the basis of this inventory, the industries were divided into the following sectors: 1. Textile sector 2. Food and beverage sector. 3. Oil and soap sector. 4. Plastic sector. 5. Household appliances sector 6. Pharmaceuticals, perfumes and pesticides sector. 7. Cement sector and its derivatives. 8. Iron and steel sector. 9. Engineering & Petroleum Industries Sector. 10. Asteline, welding and bohite sector. 11. Battery sector. 12. Various presses sector. 13. Tannery and leather sector. 14. Cigarette industry 15. Other.Objectives: 1. to reducing the morbidity and mortality rates by 90% due to occupational hazards and diseases 2. To protecting the workers and employers rights and Dispute resolution 3.Implementing a health promotion program to promote the Occupational Health issues 4. Developing and activating policies, lows and information systems to steer the decisionHider Abdelnabbi Page 9making in the health sector 5. Insuring the compliance that provide healthy work place and thus healthier worker and more productivityThese objectives of the Khartoum State were determined on the basis of inventory. These targets are renewed annually by adding new facilities and deleting the closed ones that are monitored during the environmental survey.Occupational health team in locality: 1. The Occupational Health Coordinator shall address and coordinate the target facilities for medical examination and environmental survey. 2. On the specified day, the Professional Guidance and Environmental Survey Officer will conduct the survey by means of the Environmental Health Survey Form (attached). 3. The coordinator shall write the recommendations of the work environment of the establishment for which the environmental survey was carried out, in addition to determining the type of measurements required in the establishment if he / she deems it necessary to conduct a measurement based on the environmental survey form. And deliver the recommendations of the work environment to the establishment with a specified period of time for the implementation of recommendations by the establishment, and the coordinator provides a copy of the recommendations to the Office of Labor4. On the day specified for medical examination, general medical examination, weight, height, inhalational energy, hearing (if the doctor considers that one of them should be performed or if the facility is within the targeted facilities for physiological measurements).Other duties-The medical team shall monitor the workers in the specified books (Format Medical and General Medical Examination Facility). – Cases that require referral the doctor will transfer them to the appropriate body (the transfer form attachment) -The professional guidance officer will provide the required professional guidanceHider Abdelnabbi Page 10program (seminars, exhibitions, video presentations, posters, leaflets). – The coordinator shall monitor the closed and new facilities and the number of workers to renew the target. – The Occupational Health Coordinator monitors the activities carried out on a monthly basis in the local statistical report, which is discussed with the central administration on the 2nd of each month (attached to the statistical reportMinistry of health and labor office can influence to make different in the current situation in different way-Although Sudan has long history of polices, regulation, low and own national OSH country profiles regarding health and safety in work place still there is poor implementation- OSH is a low priority in Sudan- No picture of the real impact of poor OSH conditions in Sudan-Under-reporting and Lack of treatment, compensation-No Surveillance systemSo to change the current situation we need-Introduction of OSH into national school curricula in more effective way.-Providing advice and information through intermediaries like financial institutions has proved very helpful and persuasive for some SMEs. Others have benefitted greatly from supply-chain initiatives, such as when larger enterprises provide OSH training for their SME suppliers. The media has had a major impact on attitudes towards OSH among SMEs, self-employed individuals and others beyond the traditional reach of OSH inspection. In particular, TV campaigns highlighting major accidents and what can be done to prevent them have significantly helped to change OSH attitudes and behavior among such groups.- A cultural shift is needed in many workplaces, especially in those that are more poorly regulated1-The Governments should put OSH a higher priority in their national agendasHider Abdelnabbi Page 11-Existing infrastructure of health services.-Trained manpower.-Workers involvement and employers commitment.-Surveillance of the working environment by means of epidemiological studies and testing.