There error correction. Finally, the different types of

There is a large volume of published studies describing the role
of errors and corrective feedback in second language acquisition. This chapter
focuses on error analysis, perspectives on error correction, and corrective feedback
types. The main aim of this chapter is to present contrasting opinions on the
place corrective feedback has in the second language acquisition. First, a
short analysis of errors is outlined. The next section is devoted to the
discussion of key arguments for and against error correction. Finally, the different
types of corrective feedback are discussed. Second language learning is a process where students make
mistakes in both comprehension and production (Ellis, 1994). Before proceeding
with a thorough analysis of errors, it is crucial to identify errors and
mistakes. According to Brown (2007), mistakes are slips
which result from the failure to employ a known language system accurately,
while errors refer to the incorrect learner’s system. Edge (1989), on the other hand,
divides mistakes into three categories: slips, errors, and attempts. According
to him, slips are small linguistic mistakes which a learner can recognize and
self-correct, while errors are mistakes which the learner cannot self-correct
and requires the teacher’s intervention. However, teachers may find it very
difficult to distinguish mistakes from errors. There is only a thin line
between the two. In most of the cases, the teacher or researcher must be
subjective when determining if the learner’s utterance is an error or a
mistake. What may be a mistake for one student, it can be an error for another
(ibid). Another criterion which needs to be considered for identifying errors is
the frequency of the deviant form (Brown H. D., 2007). Hence, if a learner
repeatedly says “Mr. and Mrs. Brown works in a bank,”, or “I goes to school
every day,” it means that the learner has misunderstood a rule. This error reflects
the learner’s competence level in the second language where all the verbs in
present simple tense require -s or -es. The learner thinks she knows the rule
but, in fact, she doesn’t know it quite enough. Teachers have to make the
decision if the deviant form is an error or mistake based on their knowledge of
individual learners.